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Whenever necessary, we added notes specific to Brazilian Portuguese in Part III.

Our objective is to lead the reader or new learner to develop a 'mid-Atlantic' command of Portuguese that can be used anywhere in the Portuguese-speaking world.

The book sets out the complex- ities of Portuguese in short, readable sections. Throughout, the emphasis is on Portuguese as used by native speakers around the world. We have attempted to cater for different groups of students, each with their own needs: the beginner, who may not have an extensive knowledge of grammatical concepts and terminology yet requires a guide through the grammar of the language; the intermediate-advanced student, who appre- ciates a clear reference book in moments of doubt; and the independent or adult learner, who is studying Portuguese not for academic purposes but with other aims in mind, such as business or travel.

The Grammar is the ideal reference source for the learner and user of Portuguese. H88 2003 469.82'42 1 -dc2 1 2003005266 ISBN 0-203-42656-8 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-44077-3 (Adobe e Reader Format) isbn 0-415-30816-x (hbk) (Print Edition) Foreword to first edition xiv Acknowledgments xvi Foreword to second edition xviii How to use this book xx PART I: AN ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR I Chapter I Pronunciation and spelling 3 1.1 Vowels 3 1.2 Consonants 4 1.3 Diphthongs 6 1.4 Stress 7 1.5 Accents 8 Chapter 2 Nouns 9 2.1 Gender I: masculine and feminine 9 2.2 Gender II: forming the feminine 11 2.3 Number: forming the plural 15 2.4 Diminutives and augmentatives 18 2.5 Compound nouns 21 2.6 Collective nouns 22 Chapter 3 Articles 24 3.1 Definite article 24 3.2 Use of the definite article 24 3.3 Omission of the definite article 25 3.4 Contraction of the definite article 27 3.5 Indefinite article 28 3.6 Use of the indefinite article 29 3.7 Omission of the indefinite article 30 3.8 Contraction of the indefinite article 30 Chapter 4 Adjectives 32 4.1 Gender 32 4.2 Number 34 4.3 Degree 36 4.4 Agreement 40 4.5 Position in the sentence 41 Chapter 5 Pronouns 43 5.1 Personal pronouns 43 5.2 Possessive pronouns and adjectives 53 5.3 Demonstrative pronouns 55 5.4 Relative pronouns 57 5.5 Interrogative pronouns 60 5.6 Indefinite pronouns and adjectives 62 Chapter 6 Numerals 64 6.1 Cardinal, ordinal and multiplicative numbers 64 6.2 Collective numerals 66 6.3 Use of the conjunction e with numerals 66 6.4 Roman numerals 67 Chapter 7 Verbs 68 7.1 Moods and tenses 68 7.2 Indicative mood 69 7.3 Subjunctive mood 82 7.4 Imperative mood 90 7.5 Infinitive 91 7.6 Present participle 93 7.7 Compound infinitive and compound present participle 94 7.8 Past participle 94 7.9 Passive voice 95 7.10 Auxiliary verbs 98 7.11 Impersonal, unipersonal and defective verbs 103 7.12 Reflexive verbs 104 7.13 Changing vowel sounds in verbal conjugation 106 Chapter 8 Adverbs 1 07 8 . Above all, we have aimed to produce a 'user-friendly' handbook with concise explanations of areas of grammar and comprehensible examples taken from current Portuguese usage.

Obviously, we could not overlook the contribution of our students, who, over the years, have offered themselves as guinea pigs and their comments have always been most welcome. Despite the care that has gone into producing this book, there are, no doubt, errors, oversights and inaccuracies for which we take full responsibility. Hutchinson Janet Lloyd Salford, 1996 xvii Foreword to the second edition The authors would like to express their pleasure at the success that this practical book has enjoyed in many universities, mainly in the UK and the USA, where it has been integrated into the syllabus of Portuguese language courses.